Arabic term Definition
‘Abd Slave, servant
Adab Manners, etiquette
Adhan Call to come to prayer
Alhamdu lillah “Praise be to Allah”
Allahu Akbar “Allah is All-Great”
‘Alayhis salam [Abbrev. as] “Peace be upon the Prophets or angels”
‘Alim Scholar
Ansar Muslim residents of Madinah who helped the Messenger of Allah [saws] and those who emigrated from Makkah
‘Aqeedah Islamic doctrine
‘Ashura Tenth day of Islamic month of Muharram
‘Asr Obligatory afternoon prayer
Astaghfirullah “I seek Allah’s forgiveness”
Awqaf Islamic charitable trust
‘Awrah Private parts that must be covered
Ayah Verse of the Qur’an
Bay’ah Oath of allegiance to Prophet [saws]
Bid’ah Innovation in religion
Birr Righteousness
Da’i A person calls people to Islam
Dajjal Anti-Christ
Da’wah Calling people to Islam
Deen Religion of Islam
Dhikr Remembrance of Allah [swt]
Dhuhr Obligatory noon prayer
Dinar Gold currency
Dirham Silver currency
Du’a Supplication to Allah [swt]
Duha Forenoon prayer
Dunya This world
Fajr Obligatory dawn prayer
Fard Obligatory
Fard kifayah Communal obligation
Fard ‘ayn Individual obligation
Fatwa Religious verdict
Fiqh Islamic jurisprudence
Fitnah Trial
Fitrah Nature of man
Ghayb Knowledge of the unseen
Ghusl Ritual bath after sexual intercourse and menstruation
Hadith Sayings, actions and approvals of the Messenger of Allah [saws] as narrated by his Companions
Hadith Qudsi Allah’s speech, other than the Qur’an, as narrated by the Prophet [saws]
Hajj Obligatory once-in-a-lifetime major pilgrimage to Makkah for Muslims with means
Halal Permissible
Halqah Study circle
Haram Prohibited
Hasan Acceptable hadith
Haya’ Shyness
Hilal Crescent
Hijab Muslim woman’s clothing
Hijrah Migration of Prophet [saws] and his Companions from Makkah to Medina
‘Eid Muslim festival to commemorate end of Hajj or fasting in Ramadan
‘Iddah Waiting period to be observed by divorced woman before she can marry
‘Ijma Consensus of the scholars
‘Ijtihad Judgement based on Qur’an and Sunnah
Imam Leader of community or prayer
Iman Faith, belief
Iqamah Call to commence prayer
‘Isha’ Obligatory night prayer
Isnad Chain of narration of hadith
I’tikaf Spiritual retreat in mosque in last ten days of Ramadan
Jahili Relating to the period of ignorance before Islam
Jahiliyyah Period of ignorance before Islam
Jama’ah Muslim congregation or community
Janazah Funeral prayer
Jannah Paradise
Jibreel Angel Gabriel
Jihad Striving for Allah’s Cause
Jilbab Muslim woman’s loose outer clothing
Jinn Allah’s creation of beings from fire and smoke with Satan as their most famous member
Jumu’ah Friday congregational prayer
Kafir Disbeliever of Islam
Khalifah Muslim rulers who succeeded Prophet [saws]
Khamr Alcoholic drink
Khilafah Khalifah’s period of leadership
Khutbah Sermon given in Friday congregational prayer, ‘Eid prayer and on marriage
Kufr Disbelief of Islam
La ilaha illa Allah “There is no god worthy of worship except Allah”
Laylat al Qadar One of the odd-numbered nights in the last ten days of the Islamic month of Ramadan
Maghrib Sunset prayer
Makruh Disliked but permissible
Mahram Man prohibited to marry a woman and therefore allowed to be in her presence alone
Masjid Mosque
Madhhab School of Islamic thought
Minbar Steps mounted by Imam when delivering sermon in Friday congregational prayer
Mufassir Scholar who interprets the Qur’an
Muhajir Muslims who migrated to Medina with Prophet [saws]
Mujahid A person who exercises judgement based on Qur’an and Sunnah
Mujahid A person who strives in Allah’s Cause
Muharram First Islamic month
Munafiq Overtly Muslim person who does not believe in Islam
Munkar Rejected
Musalla Prayer place
Mushrik A person who associates partners with Allah [swt]
Nafl Voluntary Islamic acts or worship
Qadar Allah’s Decree
Qadi Judge in Islamic court
Qawwam Protector and maintainer
Qiblah Prayer direction towards to Al-Ka’bah in Makkah
Qiyam al layl Standing in voluntary night prayer
Radiy Allahu ‘anhu/’anha/’anhuma/’anhum [Abbrev. ra] “May Allah [swt] be pleased with him/her/two of them/more than two of them”
Rak’ah Unit of prayer
Ruku’ Bowing in prayer
Sadaqah Voluntary charity
Sahabah Companions of Prophet [saws]
Sahih Authentic hadith
Sahur Pre-dawn meal consumed before fasting next day
Salaf Companions of Prophet [saws]
Salah Islamic prayer
Salam Islamic greeting of peace
Sall Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam [Abbrev. saws] “May Allah’s peace and praise be upon the Prophet”
Sanad Chain of narration
Shahadah Testimony of Islamic faith or martyrdom in Allah’s Cause
Shahid Martyr in Allah’s Cause
Sham Middle-East region including Palestine, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon
Shari’ah Primary Islamic law of Qur’an and Sunnah
Shawwal Tenth Islamic month
Shaytan Satan
Shirk Association of partners with Allah [swt]
Sirah Biography of Prophet [saws]
Siyam Fasting
Subh Obligatory dawn prayer
Subhanahu wa ta’ala [Abbrev. swt] Exalted is Allah above weakness and indignity
Sujud Prostration in prayer
Sunnah Teaching, guidance and way of the Prophet [saws]
Surah Chapter of the Qur’an
Tabi’i Student of Companions of the Prophet [saws]
Tafsir Interpretation of the Qur’an
Tahajjud Voluntary night prayer between ‘isha’ and fajr
Tahlil “There is no god worthy of worship except Allah”
Tajwid Phonetically correct recitation of Qur’an
Takbir “Allah is All-Great”
Taqlid Blind following of schools of Islamic thought
Taqwa Consciousness of Allah [swt]
Tasbih “Exalted is Allah”
Tashahhud Last part of the prayer in which the testimony of faith is recited
Tayammum Ritual ablution with clean earth for prayer
Taslim Saying Islamic greeting of peace to finish the prayer
Tawaf Circumambulation of the Ka’bah during pilgrimage to Makkah
Tawhid Belief in the oneness of Allah [swt] in His Essence and Attributes
‘Ulama Islamic scholars
Ummah Nation of Islam
‘Umrah Voluntary minor pilgrimage to Makkah
Wahy Revelation from Allah [swt]
Wajib Obligatory act of worship
Witr Voluntary night prayer with odd number of rak’ah
Wudu’ Ritual ablution with water for prayer
Yawm ‘Arafah Ninth day of twelfth Islamic month of Dhul Hijjah
Zakah Obligatory charity tax on wealth
Zalimun Wrongdoers
Zina Adultery

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